"Come into His gates with thanksgiving / His courtyards with praise” – this verse from Psalm 100 adorns the middle entrance of the Mühlhausen Synagogue. Construction of the synagogue began in 1840 in the backyard of a Jewish community center on Jüdenstraße.
However, there had been Jews in Mühlhausen as early as 1230, as the Mühlhausen Codex, the oldest town codex written in German, records. There are also official records of a synagogue from the year 1380. Back then, Mühlhausen was, after Erfurt, the second most important town in Thuringia. However, it wasn't before the era of the Kingdom of Westphalia (1807–1813), of which Mühlhausen was a part, that Jews were fully franchised. On November 9, 1938, the synagogue was defiled but remained otherwise intact. Re-consecrated in 1998, it is once again a place of worship and cultural events. The Jewish cemetery, consecrated 1842, is located on Eisenacher Straße.